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Women and HIV

Education Packet

Women and HIV – This packet is a compilation of recent fact sheets and other resources. You may wish to customize it to meet the needs or interests of particular groups, such as event participants, providers, patients, clients, or the general public. So please feel free to distribute all or part of this packet as either a printout or PDF.

 

Fact Sheets, Reports, and Infographics

HIV and Women – This web page gives a brief overview of HIV diagnoses among women in the U.S., and links to related pages with more detailed information on the following topics: HIV risk behaviors, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) coverage, HIV incidence, HIV diagnoses, knowledge of HIV status, viral suppression and barriers to care, prevention challenges, and what CDC is doing to reduce stigma, support HIV testing, prevent new infections, and improve HIV treatment and care in women.

HIV and Women (HIVinfo) – This fact sheet in question-and-answer format provides information on how HIV affects women, factors that put women at risk for HIV, and the ways that birth control and pregnancy may affect women’s HIV treatment choices. Also available in Spanish.

Women and HIV in the United States (Kaiser Family Foundation) – This issue brief focuses on the impact of HIV/AIDS on U.S. women. It includes a snapshot of the epidemic, a review of key trends and recent cases, information on reproductive health and HIV transmission specific to women, HIV testing, access to prevention and care, and intimate partner violence.

HIV and Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children (CDC) – This fact sheet includes information about trends in mother-to-child transmission of HIV, why pregnant women and their babies are at risk for infection, strategies for preventing transmission, and steps CDC is taking to address perinatal transmission.

Female Clients: Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, 2019 (Health Resources and Services Administration – HRSA) – This fact sheet summarizes selected demographic characteristics of female clients in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP). Over one-quarter (26.2%) of the nearly 568,000 RWHAP clients in 2019 were female. Among female clients, half (50%) were age 50 years or older, 70% lived at or below the federal poverty level, and 88% were virally suppressed. More detailed information is provided about these and other demographic characteristics.

Dimensions of HIV Prevention and Treatment for Black Women (HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau, 2020) – This issue brief is a summary of an expert panel’s examination of the research, clinical, and patient landscapes related to HIV prevention and treatment for cisgender Black women.

Women and HIV: A Spotlight on Adolescent Girls and Young Women (UNAIDS) – This report discusses U.N. goals for addressing HIV in adolescent girls and young women; the epidemiology of HIV in this population group; the reasons, including gender-based violence, why adolescent girls and young women globally have a disproportionally high risk of HIV infection; access to HIV services; and the healthcare, reproductive, and HIV-specific needs of girls and women throughout their life cycle.

National HIV Curriculum: HIV in Women (AIDS Education and Training Center, University of Washington, and other partners, updated 2022) – This is the third lesson in the Curriculum’s Key Populations module. It has detailed information on many topics, including:

  • Background
  • HIV Epidemiology in Women
  • Antiretroviral Therapy in Women
  • Contraception in Women with HIV
  • Contraception Considerations for Women at Risk for HIV
  • Serodifferent Couples Desiring Pregnancy
  • Vaginitis in Women with HIV
  • Women with HIV and Gender-Based Violence
  • Menopause in Women with HIV

 

AIDSVu Data for New England – AIDSVu is an interactive online mapping tool that visualizes the impact of the HIV epidemic on communities across the U.S.  State-by-state data and limited county data for each New England state are available at the following links: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The state data include information on new HIV diagnoses, HIV prevalence, HIV testing, and deaths among persons with HIV, with breakdowns by sex. Detailed data are also available for the following areas: Boston, the Hartford metropolitan statistical area (MSA), the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk MSA, and the New Haven-Milford MSA.

Infographics on Women and HIV (all items are from AIDSVu, except as noted)

 

HIV Surveillance Reports

Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019 (CDC) – This surveillance report includes detailed information about new HIV diagnoses, prevalence, and deaths among women. Breakdowns are also provided by age, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and geographic region. The report includes a series of Special Focus Profiles highlighting six populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments, including women. In addition, Tables 3a, 3b, 13a, 13b, 17a, and 17b focus specifically on HIV diagnoses, deaths, and prevalence by sex at birth. Some other tables that focus on different characteristics also include breakdowns by sex at birth.

Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019 (CDC) – This report provides estimates of the number of new HIV infections and the total number of persons living with HIV during each year from 2015 through 2019. It begins with a commentary section that summarizes highlights of the report, followed by tables that present data on HIV incidence and prevalence among adults and adolescents, with breakdowns by sex at birth, age, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and region of residence. The sex at birth data include statistics for adult and adolescent women. In addition, the transmission category data include breakdowns by sex at birth for heterosexual contact and injection drug use. An appendix focuses on the estimated incidence and prevalence of HIV infection among adults and adolescents living in Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) Phase 1 jurisdictions.

Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data: United States and 6 Dependent Areas, 2019 (CDC) – This report presents the results of focused analyses of U.S. HIV surveillance data to measure progress toward ending the HIV epidemic. It includes information on the stage of HIV disease at the time of diagnosis, linkage to HIV medical care, viral suppression, prevalence-based HIV care continuum, HIV deaths and survival, PrEP use, and perinatal HIV infections. The report also includes a series of Special Focus Profiles highlighting six populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments, including women. For some measures, data are broken down by gender, as well as age, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and area of residence. 

Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2010-2019 (CDC) – This slide set summarizes trends in HIV incidence during the 2010s, with breakdowns by sex, age, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and region. Data for 2019 is also provided on knowledge of HIV status, as well as HIV prevalence in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

HIV Infection, Stage 3 (AIDS), 2019 (CDC) – This slide set summarizes trends in AIDS diagnoses and deaths from 1985 to 2019, with breakdowns by sex, age, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and region. Data on cumulative AIDS diagnoses and deaths through 2019, and AIDS data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also provided.

 

Selected Resources from AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs)

Evidence-Informed Interventions for Women of Color with HIV (Special Projects of National Significance Models of Care and others, October 2021) – This resource includes enhanced tools for patient navigation and for peer linkage and re-engagement into HIV care.

Breastfeeding in HIV (South Central AETC and others, September 2021) – Training slides review the risk of HIV transmission via breast milk, recognize factors that influence the decisions of women with HIV to breastfeed, and offer recommendations for breastfeeding women with HIV.

Perinatal HIV Update: Screening, Prevention & Treatment (South Central AETC and others, September 2021) – These training slides review update to recent guidelines for the screening, prevention, and treatment of HIV for pregnant people.

The Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Assault, Trafficking and STI Risk in Indigenous Women (Midwest AETC and others, March 2021) – These training materials examine: how intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault (SA) and trafficking disproportionately impact Indigenous women in Wisconsin; how intersecting systems of oppression contributes to high rates of IPV/SA/trafficking among Indigenous women; and how stigma plays a role in successful identification and care for survivors of IPV.

HIV and Pregnancy (Northeast/Caribbean AETC, February 2021) – These training slides discuss factors influencing perinatal HIV transmission, describe strategies for reducing the risk of perinatal HIV, based on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Guidelines, and provide additional guidance on when and how to consult with and refer patients to providers for more specialized care.

Women: HIV Case Finding and Prevention Pocket Guide (MidAtlantic AETC, October 2020) – This resource provides information about HIV testing and prevention for women. It covers clinical considerations, taking a sexual health history, and discussing risks and harm reduction with women.

 

Selected Recent Reports from CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Each of these recent reports includes a discussion of HIV testing, prevention, care, or other related health issues, including data for women.

Association Between Social Vulnerability and Rates of HIV Diagnoses Among Black Adults, by Selected Characteristics and Region of Residence – United States, 2018

Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Awareness of Preexposure Prophylaxis Among HIV-Negative Heterosexually Active Adults at Increased Risk for HIV Infection – 23 Urban Areas, United States, 2019

HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Referral to Providers Among Hispanic/Latino Persons – United States, 2019

Increasing Access to HIV Testing Through Direct-to-Consumer HIV Self-Test Distribution – United States, March 31, 2020-March 30, 2021

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ? United States, 1981–2019

Care Outcomes Among Black or African American Persons with Diagnosed HIV in Rural, Urban, and Metropolitan Statistical Areas – 42 U.S. Jurisdictions, 2018 

 

Selected Web Sites and Organizations Focusing on Women and HIV

HIV and AIDS (Office of Women’s Health) – This web page has information about HIV in women and girls, HIV prevention, and living with HIV. Also available in Spanish.

The Well Project – This web site focuses on HIV prevention, treatment, and wellness among women living with, or at risk for, HIV infection. The Well Project has also established an active online community of women with HIV. 

 

The contents listed on this page are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement by, the New England AIDS Education and Training Center.