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Children and HIV

Education Packet

Children and HIV – This packet is a compilation of recent fact sheets and other resources. You may wish to customize it to meet the needs or interests of particular groups, such as event participants, providers, patients, clients, or the general public. So please feel free to distribute all or part of this packet as either a printout or PDF.  


Web Pages and Fact Sheets

HIV and Perinatal Transmission (CDC) – This web page discusses perinatal (mother-to-child) HIV transmission, ways to prevent transmission, prevention challenges, and steps CDC is taking to address perinatal transmission.

Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission (CDC) – This fact sheet discusses the importance of HIV testing, prevention, and treatment of pregnant women in preventing mother-to-child transmission.  Also available in Spanish.

Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV (HIVinfo) – This fact sheet in frequently asked questions (FAQ) format explains what mother-to-child transmission of HIV is, and discusses HIV testing among pregnant women, the safety and use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy and birth, and steps women with HIV can take to prevent transmission to their infants after birth. Also available in Spanish.

HIV and Children and Adolescents (HIVinfo) – This fact sheet in FAQ format discusses how children and adolescents become infected with HIV, as well as new HIV diagnoses, HIV risk factors, and medication adherence challenges among children and adolescents. Also available in Spanish.

About Pediatric AIDS (Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation) – This fact sheet in FAQ format provides a brief overview about HIV among children worldwide, including the number of children living with HIV, ways children become infected, the effects of HIV on children’s immune system, and the prevention and treatment of HIV among children.

HRSA’s Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) Part D: Services for Women, Infants, Children, and Youth – This fact sheet describes how RWHAP Part D funds outpatient, ambulatory, family-centered primary and specialty medical care for women, infants, children, and youth with HIV.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Infants and Children (Professional Version) (Merck Manual Online) – This frequently updated resource provides extensive information on the epidemiology, classification, symptoms and signs, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV in infants and children, as well as the transition of pediatric patients to adult care.  A consumer version of this resource and “Quick Facts” highlights are also available.


HIV Surveillance Reports and Data Analyses

Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2020 (CDC) – This surveillance report includes detailed information about new HIV diagnoses, prevalence, and deaths among children and persons in other age categories. Breakdowns are also provided by gender, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and geographic region. The report includes a series of Special Focus Profiles highlighting six populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments, including children under 13 years old. In addition, Tables 9a and 9b focus specifically on HIV diagnoses among children.

Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data United States and 6 Dependent Areas, 2020 (CDC) – This report presents the results of focused analyses of U.S. HIV surveillance data to measure progress toward ending the HIV epidemic. It includes information on the stage of HIV disease at time of diagnosis, linkage to HIV medical care, viral suppression, prevalence-based HIV care continuum, HIV deaths and survival, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and perinatal HIV infections. The report also includes a series of Special Focus Profiles highlighting six populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments, including persons with perinatally acquired HIV infection. For some measures, data are broken down by age, as well as transmission category, gender, race/ethnicity, and area of residence.

HIV Infection, Stage 3 (AIDS), 2020 (CDC) – This slide set summarizes trends in AIDS diagnoses and deaths from 1985 to 2020, with breakdowns by age, sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and region. Data on cumulative AIDS diagnoses and deaths through 2020, and AIDS data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also provided.

Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection ( – This document includes sections on: maternal HIV testing and identification of perinatal HIV exposure; diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children; clinical and laboratory monitoring of pediatric HIV infection; starting and managing antiretroviral treatment (ART) in infants, children, and adolescents; ART adherence and medication toxicities in pediatric patients; and an appendix with specific pediatric antiretroviral drug information for the many medications used in ART.

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Children with and Exposed to HIV ( – This document includes background information on opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-exposed and infected children; the potential prevention of some OIs with vaccines; and information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment recommendations for specific OIs.

Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States ( – This document includes information about maternal HIV testing and identification of perinatal HIV exposure; the role of PrEP to prevent HIV during periconception, antepartum, and postpartum periods; counseling, care, and treatment of women with HIV before, during, and after pregnancy; and care for infants born to people with HIV.

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guideline for Testing of Transplant Candidates Aged <12 Years for Infection with HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus – United States, 2022 – (U.S. Public Health Service) This guideline exempts children under 12 years old who have received postnatal infectious disease testing from repeat pretransplant HIV, HBV, and HCV testing during hospital admissions for transplant surgery.


Selected Resources from AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs)

National HIV Curriculum: HIV in Infants and Children (AETC, University of Washington, and other partners, updated 2021) – This is the first lesson in the Curriculum’s Key Populations module. It has detailed information on many topics, including:

  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of HIV in Children Younger than Age 13
  • Staging of Pediatric HIV Disease
  • Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Children
  • Clinical and Laboratory Monitoring
  • Antiretroviral Treatment for Children with HIV
  • Immunizations for Children Living with HIV
  • Opportunistic Infections in Children
  • Summary Points


Breastfeeding in HIV (South Central AETC and others, September 2021) – These training slides review the risk of HIV transmission via breast milk, recognize factors that influence the decisions of women with HIV to breastfeed, and offer recommendations for breastfeeding women with HIV.

Perinatal HIV Update: Screening, Prevention & Treatment (South Central AETC and others, September 2021) – These training slides review updates to recent guidelines for the screening, prevention, and treatment of HIV for pregnant people.


Reports and Articles from UNAIDS

The Global Alliance to End HIV in Children – Launched in 2022, the Global Alliance is a strategic initiative to end HIV in children and adolescents worldwide by 2030. The priorities of the Global Alliance include: preventing and detecting new HIV infections among pregnant and breastfeeding women; closing the treatment gap for pregnant and breastfeeding women with HIV; early HIV testing and optimized treatment for infants, children, and adolescents; and addressing rights, gender equality, and the social and structural barriers that hinder access to services.

Dangerous Inequalities: World AIDS Day Report 2022 – This report on global HIV/AIDS includes a discussion about how children continue to be left behind in access to HIV services.

Reports and Articles


Resources from UNICEF

These fact sheets and reports provide extensive information about the impact of HIV and AIDS on children and adolescents around the world. They include global and regional data on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, efforts to prevent HIV transmission, and progress toward the goal of ending the global epidemic by 2030.


The contents listed on this page are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement by, the New England AIDS Education and Training Center.