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Children and HIV

Education Packet

Children and HIV – This packet is a compilation of several recent fact sheets and other resources. You may wish to customize it to meet the needs or interests of particular groups, such as event participants, providers, patients, clients, or the general public. So please feel free to distribute all or part of this packet as either a printout or PDF.

Web Pages and Fact Sheets 

HIV and Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children (CDC) – This page discusses perinatal (mother-to-child) HIV transmission, ways to prevent transmission, prevention challenges, and steps CDC is taking to address perinatal transmission. 

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (HIVinfo) – This fact sheet in frequently asked questions (FAQ) format explains what mother-to-child transmission of HIV is, and discusses HIV testing among pregnant women, the safety and use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy and birth, and steps women with HIV can take to prevent transmission to their infants after birth. Also available in Spanish

HIV and Children and Adolescents (HIVinfo) – This fact sheet in FAQ format discusses how children and adolescents become infected with HIV, as well as new HIV diagnoses, HIV risk factors, and medication adherence challenges among children and adolescents. Also available in Spanish

About Pediatric AIDS (Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation) – This fact sheet in FAQ format provides a brief overview about HIV among children worldwide, including the number of children living with HIV, ways children become infected, the effects of HIV on children’s immune system, and the prevention and treatment of HIV among children. 

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Infants and Children  (Professional Version) (Merck Manual Online) – This frequently updated resource provides extensive information on the epidemiology, classification, symptoms and signs, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV in infants and children, as well as the transition of pediatric patients to adult care.  A consumer version of this resource and “Quick Facts” highlights are also available.

HIV Surveillance Reports and Data Analyses

Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2018 (updated) (CDC) – This 119-page report presents detailed information about new HIV diagnoses, deaths, and prevalence among all age categories, including children and young adults. Breakdowns are also provided by gender, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and geographic region. The report includes “special focus profiles that highlight trends and distribution of HIV in five populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments,” including children less than 13 years old. Tables 8a and 8b focus specifically on children. Many other tables in the report also include data breakdowns by age, including for children.  

Maps Based on Data from 2018 HIV Surveillance Report (Preliminary) (CDC) – This map set presents state data on HIV and AIDS diagnoses and prevalence, with breakdowns by adult/adolescent and pediatric cases. 

Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment 

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection ( – This document includes sections on: maternal HIV testing and identification of perinatal HIV exposure; diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children; clinical and laboratory monitoring of pediatric HIV infection; starting and managing antiretroviral treatment (ART) in infants, children, and adolescents; ART adherence and medication toxicities in pediatric patients; and an appendix with specific pediatric antiretroviral drug information for the many medications used in ART. 

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children ( – This document includes background information on opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-exposed and infected children; the potential prevention of some OIs with vaccines; and information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment recommendations for specific OIs.

Additional Resources from UNICEF

These fact sheets and reports provide extensive information about the impact of HIV and AIDS on children and adolescents around the world. They include global and regional data on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, efforts to prevent HIV transmission, and progress toward the goal of ending the global epidemic by 2030.