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American Indian & Alaska Native People and HIV

Education Packet

American Indian and Alaska Native People and HIV – This packet is a compilation of several recent fact sheets and other resources. You may wish to customize it to meet the needs or interests of particular groups, such as event participants, providers, patients, clients, or the general public. So please feel free to distribute all or part of this packet as either a printout or PDF.  

Fact Sheets, Infographics, and Web Pages

HIV in the United States by Race/Ethnicity (CDC) – This web page links to data on HIV among different racial and ethnic groups, including American Indian and Alaska Native people. Information is provided on HIV risk behaviors, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) coverage, HIV incidence, HIV diagnoses, knowledge of HIV status, viral suppression rates, and what CDC is doing to address HIV in different racial/ethnic groups.

HIV/AIDS and American Indians/Alaska Natives (Office of Minority Health) – This web page has detailed statistical information about HIV and AIDS among AI/AN people, including: infection cases and rates in adults and children under 13 years old, AIDS cases and rates among adults, death rates, and HIV testing status of adults age 18 years or older.

HIV in Indian Country (Indian Health Service) – This fact sheet summarizes statistics and trends in HIV testing and diagnoses among AI/AN people in the U.S. and the ongoing initiatives to prevent HIV transmission and eliminate HIV and hepatitis C.

American Indian/Alaska Native Clients: Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, 2019 (Health Resources and Services Administration) – This fact sheet summarizes selected demographic characteristics of AI/AN clients in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP). About one in two hundred (0.5%) of the nearly 568,000 RWHAP clients in 2019 were AI/AN people. Among the program’s AI/AN clients, about 46% were age 50 years or older, more than two-thirds (70%) lived at or below the federal poverty level, and 88% were virally suppressed. More detailed information is also provided about these and other demographic characteristics.

Infographics from the AIDSVu Website:

National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day Website (NNHAAD) – This is the official website for NNHAAD, which is a national community mobilization effort designed to encourage American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians across the U.S. and territorial areas to get educated, tested, involved in prevention, and treated for HIV. This site provides background information about the day, together with links to fact sheets, other educational materials, and products to promote HIV/AIDS awareness. 

HIV’s Impact on Racial and Ethnic Minorities (HIV.gov) – This fact sheet includes information about the proportion of people with HIV by race/ethnicity compared to their proportion in the U.S. population; HIV incidence by race/ethnicity; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program clients from racial and ethnic minority population groups; and the Minority HIV/AIDS Fund.

American Indians and Alaska Natives: Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB (CDC) – This web page examines health disparities in the AI/AN population, including HIV, viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, and C), sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis), and tuberculosis.

 

HIV Surveillance Reports and Data Analyses

Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019 (CDC) – This surveillance report includes detailed information about new HIV diagnoses, prevalence, and deaths among AI/AN people, as well as those in other racial and ethnic groups.  Breakdowns are also provided by age, gender, transmission category, and geographic region. In addition, Tables 2a, 2b, 7a, 7b, 9a, 9b, 12a, 12b, 16a, 16b, 21, and A2 focus specifically on HIV diagnoses, deaths, and prevalence by race/ethnicity. Some other tables that focus on different characteristics also include race/ethnicity breakdowns.

Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019 (CDC) – This report provides estimates of the number of new HIV infections and the total number of persons living with HIV during each year from 2015 through 2019. It begins with a commentary section that summarizes highlights of the report, followed by 13 tables that present data on HIV incidence and prevalence among adults and adolescents, with breakdowns by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, age, transmission category, and region of residence. The race/ethnicity data include statistics for American Indians and Alaska Natives. An appendix focuses on the estimated incidence and prevalence of HIV infection among adults and adolescents living in Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) Phase 1 jurisdictions.

Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data: United States and 6 Dependent Areas, 2019 (CDC) – This report presents the results of focused analyses of U.S. HIV surveillance data to measure progress toward ending the HIV epidemic. It includes information on the stage of HIV disease at time of diagnosis, linkage to HIV medical care, viral suppression, prevalence-based HIV care continuum, HIV deaths and survival, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and perinatal HIV infections. The report also includes a series of Special Focus Profiles highlighting six populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments. For some measures, data are broken down by race/ethnicity, as well as gender, age, transmission category, and area of residence.

Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2010-2019 (CDC) – This slide set summarizes trends in HIV incidence during the 2010s, with breakdowns by race/ethnicity, age, sex, transmission category, and region. Data for 2019 is also provided on knowledge of HIV status, as well as HIV prevalence in the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

HIV Infection, Stage 3 (AIDS), 2019 (CDC) – This slide set summarizes trends in AIDS diagnoses and deaths from 1985 to 2019, with breakdowns by race/ethnicity, age, sex, transmission category, and region. Data on cumulative AIDS diagnoses and deaths through 2019, and AIDS data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also provided.

 

Selected Resources from AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs)

National HIV Curriculum: HIV in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations (AETC, University of Washington, and other partners, 2021) – This is the sixth lesson in the Curriculum’s Key Populations module. It has detailed information on many topics, including:

  • Introduction
  • Overview of HIV Epidemiology in Racial and Ethnic Minorities
  • HIV Epidemiology Data by Racial and Ethnic Populations
  • Comparison of Racial/Ethnic Groups in the HIV Care Continuum
  • Health Outcomes and Death
  • Factors Associated with Health Inequities
  • Future Directions for Reducing HIV-Related Disparities

ConnQuER HepC App: Educational and Care Companion App (New England AETC, October 2021) – This educational tool “is useful for patients, case managers, and community health workers. It is designed to inform about the clinical condition of hepatitis C and foster more efficient conversations between patients and healthcare providers.” It is part of the ConnQuer HepC project aimed at curing hepatitis C among people of color with HIV.

PrEP-ing Native Communities (Midwest AETC and others, April 2021) – These training slides review how to start a PrEP program in clinical settings that serve the Native community. Topics include: the difference between post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and PrEP; how to communicate with patients about PrEP and PEP; how to initiate PrEP; and finding resources to support clients.

The Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Assault, Trafficking and STI Risk in Indigenous Women (Midwest AETC and others, March 2021) – This training materials examine: how intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault (SA) and trafficking disproportionately impact Indigenous women in Wisconsin; how intersecting systems of oppression contribute to high rates of IPV/SA/trafficking among Indigenous women; and how stigma plays a role in successful identification and care for survivors of IPV.

 

Selected Recent Reports from CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Each of these recent reports includes data on, or a discussion of, racial/ethnic disparities in HIV testing, prevention, care, or other health indicators (such as COVID-19 vaccination status), including information for AI/AN people.

Notes from the Field: COVID-19 Vaccination Among Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection – New York, October 2021

Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Awareness of Preexposure Prophylaxis Among HIV-Negative Heterosexually Active Adults at Increased Risk for HIV Infection – 23 Urban Areas, United States, 2019

Vital Signs: Deaths Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection, United States, 2010-2018

Vital Signs: Status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Viral Suppression, and HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis – United States, 2013-2018

Increasing Access to HIV Testing Through Direct-to-Consumer HIV Self-Test Distribution – United States, March 31, 2020–March 30, 2021

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections – United States, 1981-2019

Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of American Indian/Alaska Native Adults in HIV Care – Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2011-2015

 

Additional Resources

Celebrate Native American Heritage Month! (CDC) – Native Heritage month is commemorated in November. This resource page includes information about health indicators and health disparities among AI/AN people, and discusses strategies for reducing health disparities.

American Indian and Alaska Native Health (MedlinePlus) – This web page has links to many health resources focusing specifically on American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

 

The contents listed on this page are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement by, the New England AIDS Education and Training Center.