Cervical Cancer and Other HPV-Related Cancers: Materials for Cervical Health Awareness Month (January)
An estimated 14,480 women were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in the U.S. during 2021, and about 4,290 died as a result of that cancer. Infection with certain cancer-causing strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to the development of cervical cancer in women, penile cancer in men, and anal cancer and cancers affecting the throat, tongue, and tonsils in both men and women. In addition, invasive cervical cancer and anal cancer occur at significantly higher rates among persons with HIV than among the general population.
For women, screening is available to detect most cases of cervical cancer with a Pap smear. At this time, there are no official guidelines recommending routine screening for other HPV-related cancers among women or men – although some groups have advocated for anal cancer screening among HIV-infected men and women.
Fortunately, an effective vaccine is now available to prevent infection involving the most common cancer-causing strains of HPV. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that HPV vaccination has the potential to prevent more than 90% of all cases of HPV-related cancers in the U.S.
The U.S. Congress has designated January as Cervical Health Awareness Month. Each year, the National Cervical Cancer Coalition and American Sexual Health Association encourage women across the country to get screened for cervical cancer and receive the HPV vaccine if they are eligible.
We have compiled the resources below to help you, your colleagues, and clients or patients become more informed about cervical and other HPV-related cancers, screening, and vaccination.
General Information About HPV and HPV-Related Cancers
Cancers Caused by HPV (CDC)
Cervical Cancer (American Cancer Society)
Anal Cancer: Distribution in the Population and Causes (UCSF Department of Medicine)
Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ) – Health Professional Version – also available in Spanish (NCI)
Anal Cancer: Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment (Anal Cancer Foundation)
Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV – These are recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. There is a section specifically devoted to HPV disease that includes information on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, screening recommendations, prevention, and treatment, as well as special considerations for pregnant women with HIV and HPV-related disease.
Screening for HPV-Related Cancers
Cervical Cancer: What Should I Know About Screening? – also available in Spanish (CDC)
Cervical Cancer: Screening Recommendations (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force)
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ) – Health Professional Version – also available in Spanish (NCI)
Cervical Cancer Screening: Frequently Asked Questions (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)
Cervical Screening for Dysplasia and Cancer (New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute)
Anal Precancer + Screening (Anal Cancer Foundation)
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Adults: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (CDC) – This guidance, published in 2019, recommends routine baccination against HPV at age 11 or 12 years. Catch-up HPV vaccination is recommended for all persons through age 26 years. Although the guidance does not recommend catch-up vaccination for all adults aged 27 through 45 years, it recommends shared clinical decision-making, because some persons who are not adequately vaccinated might benefit.
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine (HHS.gov)
HPV Vaccine [information for parents] (CDC)